10 characteristics of metals and non-metals
In chemistry, according to their characteristics and their properties, the elements can be grouped in two ways: metals and non-metals.
In the periodic table you can find a greater proportion of metals, which are present in the earth's crust. The rest of the elements that are part of it are called non-metals, and constitute the basis for the formation of the different organic compounds that are essential for life.
Characteristics of metals
- they are malleable: Metal elements have the ability to deform in the form of sheets, without actually breaking; for this, the metal must go through a certain process in which compression or strong blows are applied to it to achieve the objective; an example of this is the gold.
- They are ductile: This type of elements can be manipulated to give shape to threads and wires, For example, him copper.
- are drivers: Metals are capable of transmitting electricity and also heat. An example of this is the silver, which is considered the best conductor of electricity.
- they are resistant: Thanks to having a high density, this type of elements are capable of withstanding different bending, compression, torsion and traction forces without breaking. Although there are some exceptions, such as metals that are considered brittle, these are the bismuth and the manganese.
- they are shiny: Thanks to the fact that they have the ability to reflect light and shine, it is considered that these types of elements have a “metallic shine”.
- they are corrosive: Metals are characterized by being corrosive, this means that they are susceptible to wear or oxidation when they come into contact with water.
- There are different types of metals: Metals can be considered alkaline, transitional, alkaline earth, transactinide either actinides.
- contain electrons: The metal elements are characterized by having electrons in the outer layer of each of their atoms that make them up, in general, these are between 1 and 3 electrons.
- They are usually solid at room temperature.: These are characterized by being solid when they are at room temperature, but there are some exceptions, such as mercury, which is considered a liquid metal.
- Alloys of metallic character: Alloys of a metallic nature are also considered metals, since their manufacture requires a process in which metallic and non-metallic elements are usually mixed.
Characteristics of non-metals
- Its appearance is varied: Non-metal elements are characterized by having a varied appearance; In this sense, they can be found in a solid, gas or liquid state.
- they are not corrosive: Non-metals are non-corrosive substances, for which they are usually less susceptible to wear and to oxidationproduct of contact with water.
- They are poor conductors of electricity.: Non-metals, unlike metals, are characterized by being insulators, so they are used to build structures in order to avoid conduction currents, either by electricity or heat.
- they are fragile: These types of elements are not very resistant, which means that they are usually brittle and can deteriorate more easily.
- they are not bright: Non-metals are a type of element that, unlike metals, are not capable of reflecting light and therefore do not shine.
- They have lower melting points than metals.: In this sense, the non-metal elements can go from a solid to a liquid state much faster than metals.
- They are high electronegativity: By having a greater electronegativity, this type of element is capable of attracting electrons towards them to a greater extent.
- are diatomic: This means that nonmetals are commonly formed by two atoms which can be of the same or of another chemical element.
- They are good oxidizing agents: Nonmetals have the ability to form acid oxides. This type of rust is usually the product of the combination of a non-metallic element with oxygen.
- they are not malleable: Not being malleable, non-metals do not have the ability to deform by compression or impact without breaking.
The metal and non-metal elements are of the utmost importance for the human being, since through them the manufacture of different materials is achieved that are of primary use in various activities of daily life.
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ENCICLOPEDIA DE CARACTERÍSTICAS (2023) 10 characteristics of metals and non-metals, en 10caracteristicas.com. https://10caracteristicas.com/en/10-characteristics-of-metals-and-non-metals/ (Consultado el: 23-09-2023)
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