10 characteristics of the Spanish Constitution

1 year ago

The Spanish Constitution has been the main legal and political benchmark in Spain since its approval in 1978. With a large majority of votes in favour, it was drawn up after the dictatorship of Francisco Franco and was a historic milestone in the transition to democracy. The Constitution defends fundamental rights and freedoms and establishes the basic principles of political and territorial organization, as well as the separation of powers.

The Spanish Constitution is made up of 169 articles and a preamble that defines the ideological framework of the norm and pays tribute to the victims of the Civil War and the Franco regime. The Magna Carta establishes national sovereignty, the parliamentary monarchy and the Rule of Law as fundamental principles, and guarantees the rights to life, liberty, equality, property and education, among others. In addition, it recognizes the territorial and cultural diversity of Spain and establishes political decentralization through the division into Autonomous Communities.

In short, the Spanish Constitution is a historical and fundamental document in the recent history of Spain and in the consolidation of democracy. It is a legal framework that guarantees the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens and establishes the basic principles of political and territorial organization of the State. Successive reforms have adapted the text to social and political changes, but its spirit and its importance for coexistence and democratic stability in Spain remain unquestionable.

List of the 10 most important characteristics of the Spanish constitution



  1. Social and democratic state of law: The 1978 Constitution establishes that Spain is a social and democratic state of law, which means that power resides in the people, that it is exercised through democratic representation, and that justice and equality are fundamental values.
  2. bicameral system: The legislative power is divided into two chambers, the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, in a bicameral model that seeks to better represent Spain's territorial diversity.
  3. Statutes of autonomy: The Constitution recognizes and guarantees the right to autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
  4. Political party system: The Constitution establishes the freedom of political association and political plurality as one of the fundamental foundations of the democratic system.
  5. Fundamental rights: The Constitution recognizes and protects fundamental rights and public liberties, including equality, freedom of expression, personal and family privacy, education, work, and private property.


  6. Independent judicial system: The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary and establishes the system of a single and independent justice for all of Spain.
  7. Parliamentary monarchy: Spain is a parliamentary monarchy, in which the king has a symbolic and representative role and power resides in the people through their democratic representatives.
  8. Citizen participation: The Constitution promotes citizen participation in political and social life through popular initiative, petition and other mechanisms.
  9. Education system: The Constitution establishes the right to free, quality public education, and guarantees freedom of education and the rights of students.
  10. Right to work and social protection: The Constitution recognizes the right to work, to collective bargaining and to social protection, as part of the fundamental rights of all citizens.


Final comments about the Spanish constitution

In conclusion, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the norm that governs the functioning of the Spanish State and establishes the rights and obligations of citizens. Among the most notable aspects of the Spanish Constitution is the defense of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the consolidation of the social and democratic State of law, decentralization and recognition of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain, as well as the separation of powers.

In short, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 is a fundamental document for the peaceful and democratic coexistence of Spanish society. Its role has been key to the consolidation of democracy in Spain and to guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of citizens. It should be noted that its validity and compliance are essential to achieve a fairer, more egalitarian and prosperous country.



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ENCICLOPEDIA DE CARACTERÍSTICAS (2024) 10 characteristics of the Spanish Constitution, en 10caracteristicas.com. https://10caracteristicas.com/en/10-characteristics-of-the-spanish-constitution/ (Consultado el: 12-06-2024)

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