10 characteristics of OCEANIA
Oceania is the name of the region consisting of island groups within the Central and South Pacific Ocean. Covers more than 3.3 million square miles (8.5 million km2). Some of the countries included in Oceania are Australia, New Zealand, Tuvalu, Samoa, Tonga, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Palau, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Nauru. Oceania also includes various dependencies and territories such as American Samoa, Johnston Atoll, and French Polynesia.
- Economy: Fishing is a major source of income because many islands have maritime exclusive economic zones that extend for 200 nautical miles and many small islands have granted permission to foreign countries to fish the region through fishing licences.
- Islands: It includes more than 10,000 islands, with a total area (excluding Australia, but including Papua New Guinea and New Zealand) of approximately 317,700 square miles (822,800 square kilometers).
- Climate: Most of Oceania is divided into two climatic zones. The first of them is temperate and the second is tropical. Most of Australia and all of New Zealand are within the temperate zone, and most of the island areas in the Pacific are considered tropical. The temperate regions of Oceania feature high levels of precipitation, cold winters, and warm to hot summers. The tropical regions of Oceania are hot and humid throughout the year. In addition to these climate zones, most of Oceania is affected by continuous trade winds and sometimes hurricanes (called tropical cyclones in Oceania) that have historically caused catastrophic damage to countries and islands in the region.
- Urbanization: Like its population distribution, urbanization and industrialization also vary in Oceania. 89% of Oceania's urban areas are located in Australia and New Zealand and these countries also have the most established infrastructure. Australia, in particular, has many raw minerals and energy sources, and manufacturing is a large part of its and Oceania's economy. The rest of Oceania and specifically the Pacific islands are not well developed. Some of the islands have rich natural resources, but most do not. Furthermore, some of the island nations do not even have enough drinking water or food to supply their citizens.
- Flora and fauna: Because most of Oceania is tropical or temperate, there is an abundant amount of rainfall that produces tropical and temperate rainforests throughout the region. Tropical rainforests are common in some island countries located near the tropics, while temperate rainforests are common in New Zealand. In both types of forests, there are a large number of plant and animal species, making Oceania one of the most biodiverse regions in the world. It is important to note, however, that not all of Oceania receives abundant rainfall, and some parts of the region are arid or semi-arid. Australia, for example, has large areas of drylands that have little vegetation. In addition, El Niño has caused frequent droughts in recent decades in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.
- Tourism: Tourism is also important to Oceania because many of the tropical islands like Fiji offer aesthetic beauty, while Australia and New Zealand are modern cities with modern conveniences. New Zealand has also become a focus area for the growing field of ecotourism.
- Agriculture: Agriculture is also important in Oceania and there are three types that are common in the region. These include subsistence farming, plantation crops, and capital-intensive farming. Subsistence farming occurs on most Pacific islands and is done to support local communities. Cassava, taro, yams and sweet potatoes are the most common products of this type of agriculture. Plantation crops are grown on the mid-tropical islands, while capital-intensive agriculture is practiced mainly in Australia and New Zealand.
- Population: Most recently, in 2018, the population of Oceania was around 41 million people, with the majority centered in Australia and New Zealand. Those two countries alone accounted for more than 28 million people, while Papua New Guinea had a population of more than 8 million. The remaining population of Oceania is scattered around the various islands that make up the region.
- Geographic division: Oceania has traditionally been divided into four parts: Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Just 33,000 years ago, no humans lived in the region, except for Australasia. Although they disagree on the details, scientists generally support a theory that calls for an origin of island peoples in Southeast Asia.By the year 2000, approximately 12 million islanders lived in Oceania (excluding Australia), and many indigenous cultures were revolutionized by intensive contact with non-oceanic groups that they had invaded various parts of the western world
- Art: The art of Oceania encompasses the artifacts created by the indigenous peoples of a geographic region that spans nearly a third of the world's surface, from Tonga and Tahiti in Polynesia to the scattered islands of Melanesia and Micronesia. With some 20,000 Pacific islands and nearly 1,800 cultures and languages, Oceania is one of the most diverse regions on the planet. The art of Oceania falls into two main categories, corresponding to the years before and after Western contact. Australian Aboriginal rock paintings and engravings, believed to be over 40,000 years old, are the oldest works of oceanic art.
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ENCICLOPEDIA DE CARACTERÍSTICAS (2023) 10 characteristics of OCEANIA, en 10caracteristicas.com. https://10caracteristicas.com/en/10-characteristics-of-oceania/ (Consultado el: 23-09-2023)
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